Roland Rousseau was born December 1, 1929 in Montreal, Quebec. The brother of Bobby and Guy Rousseau, Roland was a graduate of the Quebec Junior Hockey League and was a member of the 1949 Memorial Cup champion Montreal Jr. Royals.
In 1950, Rousseau played in only one game with the Jr. Royals while splitting the better half of the season between the Montreal City Hockey League's Laval Nationale and the Quebec Senior Hockey League's Montreal Royals.
Rousseau spent the next two seasons with the Royals, now of the Quebec Major Hockey League while playing a handful of playoff games with the AHL's Cincinnati Mohawks in 1952. During the 1952-53 season, Roland Rousseau made his NHL debut with the Montreal Canadiens, playing in two games while spending the majority of the year with the Royals.
After being claimed by the Canadiens in the Inter-League Draft, Roland Rousseau spent the 1953-54 season with the AHL's Rochester Americans before returning to the Royals line up the following year. In his second tour of duty with the Royals, now of the Quebec Hockey League, Rousseau led his team to the Edinburgh Trophy (WHL/QHL Challenge Series).
In 1956-57, Rousseau joined the QHL's Chicoutimi Sagueneens, where he was teammates with his brother Guy during the 1957-58 season.
From 1958 to 1960 Roland Rousseau did not play any hockey, returning only in 1960-61 with the Quebec Senior Hockey League's Granby Vics, leading them to the 1961 Allan Cup tournament. Rousseau returned to Granby, now of the Eastern Townships Senior Hockey League in 1962-63 before finishing the season leading the Montreal Olympics to the 1962 Allan Cup tournament.
Following the 1962 Allan Cup, Roland Rousseau retired from the game of hockey for five years before returning with Granby for one more season in 1967-68.
Roland Rousseau played in two NHL games throughout his hockey career, registering no points.