Diminutive Art Gagne played his minor hockey in his hometown of Ottawa and suited up for various teams in the OCHL from 1914 to 1917 including the Ottawa Aberdeens, the Royal Canadians and Grand Trunks. He then made brief stops with Laval University and the Quebec Montagnais.
In 1920-21 Gagne ventured west and landed in Edmonton where he played for the Eskimos. The following year he signed with the Eskimos to play in the WCHL. In October, 1923 he was traded to Regina for Emory Sparrow and $1,500. He moved with the club when the franchise transferred to Portland and he was soon traded back to Edmonton with Eddie Shore for Joe McCormick and Bob Trapp.
Gagne was traded another six times during his career, and that doesn't include his free-agent signings. It was not until 1926-27 at the age of 29 that Gage first made it to the NHL as a member of the Montreal Canadiens. He suited up for 44 games, contributing 14 goals and 17 points on a powerhouse team that included such stars as; Howie Morenz and Aurel Joliat. Gagne remained in Montreal for another two seasons before being traded to the Boston Bruins for cash in 1929. His tenure with the Bruins lasted all of six games before he was sent to the Ottawa Senators. He stayed with the club through the 1930-31 season. Gagne's final NHL stop was a 13-game stop with the Detroit Falcons in 1930-31. In 228 NHL games he recorded 67 goals and 100 points.
Gagne continued to play pro hockey for another four years, returning to the Edmonton Eskimos, retiring after the 1935-36 season at the age of 38.