Mike Boland began his junior hockey career in his hometown of London after being drafted by the OHA's London Knights. He was with the team for just 14 games before being traded to the Sault Ste Marie Greyhounds. Boland finished out his junior career with the Greyhounds suiting up for the 1972-73 and 1973-74 seasons. In his final year he scored eleven goals and 50 points and a feisty 200 minutes in penalties.
In the 1974 NHL Amateur Draft Boland was taken in the seventh round, 110th overall by the expansion Kansas City Scouts. He was also picked by the WHA's San Diego Mariners. While it seemed he had a better chance of gaining full-time employment in the fledgling WHA, it was Boland's lifelong dream to play in the NHL and decided to stick with it. In his first training camp Boland was unable to convince the Scouts' coaching staff that he was ready for a roster spot so they sent him down to the Port Huron Flags of the IHL. He was called up for one game with the Scouts but that was the only NHL activity he saw for close to four years.
After a lengthy stay in the minors with Port Huron and Fort Wayne he was moved to Hershey, which proved to be quite beneficial to Boland's career. The Bears were the minor-league affiliate of the Buffalo Sabres. After playing 46 games with the Bears he got the call to join the Sabres in 1978-79 for 22 games where he had a goal and two assists. He also suited up for Buffalo's three playoff games that year when they lost to the Pittsburgh Penguins.
Unfortunately for Boland a new coaching staff was brought in to Buffalo following the team's unexpected fast exit from the playoffs the previous spring. The 1979-80 season saw the arrival of Scotty Bowman who was given both the head coach and general manager's duties. Bowman, looking to put his own mark on the team, filled out his defensive corps with youngsters such as Larry Playfair, Lindy Ruff and veteran John Van Boxmeer. Boland was told he did not fit in with Bowman's plans and was shipped off to Rochester, the club's new AHL affiliate, where he played out the 1979-80 campaign. The demotion ended Boland's NHL career but he continued to play hockey for another four years in the minors. He retired after the 1983-84 season with the Fort Wayne Komets.