Carey Wilson was chosen 67th overall in the 2nd round of the 1980 NHL draft by the Chicago Blackhawks, but never played a game with the team. After playing five games with the Calgary Wranglers of the Western Junior League at the age of 16, he decided to go the U.S. college hockey route. For two years he suited up for Dartmouth and was among the team's leading scorers both years. From there Wilson spent two seasons playing in the Finnish elite league in Helsinki.
In 1983, Wilson joined the Canadian National team and was a member of the 1984 Olympic team that competed at Sarajevo. Wilson lists the club's failure to earn a medal as one of his biggest disappointments. Before joining the Canadian national team, Wilson suited up for 15 games with the Calgary Flames. Although he scored just two goals and five assists, his strong play with the national team garnered him a closer look from Calgary GM Cliff Fletcher. After the Olympics, Wilson joined the Flames, enjoying three highly successful years in the southern Alberta city. In 1984-85, he contributed 72 points on 24 goals and 48 assists. The following year he was part of a Flames' team that made it all the way to the Stanley Cup finals before losing in the championship to the Montreal Canadiens.
Wilson made brief stops with the Hartford Whalers and New York Rangers but wound up back in Calgary from 1991 to 1993. He left the NHL after that season and was out of hockey for four years before attempting a comeback in 1996-97 with the IHL's Manitoba Moose. It was a short-lived revival though, as he lasted just seven games before packing it in for good.